Under the conditions of regularly increasing near-maximal loads, several extremely effective signaling systems that stimulate the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes were revealed. It also increases the muscle nuclei, which in turn can increase the number of “working” genetic material.
The complex of protein kinases – enzymes, phosphorylating activating other enzymes, triggers the synthesis of protein molecules on ribosomes. This complex can be inhibited by the antibiotic rapamycin, hence the name mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), that is, the target for rapamycin, characteristic of mammals.
In turn, mTOR can be activated by three possible ways: the action of an insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) through a chain of intermediary enzymes, an excess of amino acids, and direct action of a mechanical load through phosphatidic acid molecules. The latter is synthesized by the phospholipase D (PLD) located in the region of the Z-disk, the cytoskeletal proteins of which are well perceived by the mechanical stress transmitted from the actomyosin bridges.